TMD – Causes and symptoms

Do you have symptoms without an identifiable cause?

Many patients have consulted a veritable army of doctors trying to find the cause of their symptoms – usually without success. But in many cases various types of pain and symptoms can be attributed to temporomandibular disorder (TMD), a functional disorder of the masticatory system.

How is TMD caused?

The basis for TMD is muscular tension in the masticatory, head or facial muscles. The main risk factors are malocclusion and psycho-emotional stress – “grinding of the teeth.”
Malocclusion is dysfunction in the interaction between the teeth of the upper and lower jaws – leading to a “bad bite.”

Besides genetic causes, the main trigger is unnatural wearing of the teeth due to mostly nocturnal grinding (bruxism), which can in turn be caused or intensified by stress. Even slight changes to the masticatory apparatus can lead to considerable dysfunction. This is understandable considering the fact that a biting force of up to 400-800 N can occur in the masticatory centre by nocturnal clenching and grinding lasting approx. 15-20 mins.

But missing teeth, badly fitting prostheses or insufficient orthodontic treatment could also be responsible for the fact that teeth no longer fit together properly.

Why can a “bad bite” also cause headache or back pain?

Malocclusion leads to inappropriate load on the temporomandibular joint with unnaturally high strain and tension on the surrounding muscles. Constant inappropriate load can lead to uncoordinated muscle activity by the central nervous system due to neuromuscular mechanisms (muscular hyperactivity) and thus also to pain and symptoms in other areas of the musculoskeletal system. 

TMD

What is meant by temporomandibular disorder?

 

TMD is the name given to a functional disorder of the masticatory system.
The starting point is muscular tension in the masticatory, head or facial muscles. The main risk factors are occlusion disorders and psycho-emotional stress –
“grinding the teeth”

More information

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